Wednesday, 15 October 2008

Additional Information about Food Additives

Q. What is the difference between "natural" and "artificial" additives?

A. Some additives are manufactured from natural sources such as soybeans and corn, which provide lecithin to maintain product consistency, or beets, which provide beet powder used as food coloring. Other useful additives are not found in nature and must be man-made. Artificial additives can be produced more economically, with greater purity and more consistent quality than some of their natural counterparts. Whether an additive is natural or artificial has no bearing on its safety.

Q. Is a natural additive safer because it is chemical-free?

A. No. All foods, whether picked from your garden or your supermarket shelf, are made up of chemicals. For example, the vitamin C or ascorbic acid found in an orange is identical to that produced in a laboratory. Indeed, all things in the world consist of the chemical building blocks of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and other elements.These elements are combined in various ways to produce starches, proteins, fats, water and vitamins found in foods.

Q. Are sulfites safe?

A. Sulfites added to baked goods, condiments, snack foods and other products are safe for most people. A small segment of the population, however, has been found to develop hives, nausea, diarrhea, shortness of breath or even fatal shock after consuming sulfites. For that reason, in 1986 FDA banned the use of sulfites on fresh fruits and vegetables intended to be sold or served raw to consumers. Sulfites added as a preservative in all other packaged and processed foods must be listed on the product label.

Q. Does FD&C Yellow No.5 cause allergic reactions?

A. FD&C Yellow No.5, or tartrazine, is used to color beverages, desert powders, candy ice cream, custards and other foods. The color additive may cause hives in fewer than one out of 10,000 people. By law, whenever the color isadded to foods or taken internally, it must be listed on the label. This allows the small portion of people who may be sensitive to FD&C Yellow No.5 to avoid it.

Q. Does the low calorie sweetener aspartame carry adverse reactions?

A. There is no scientific evidence that aspartame causes adverse reactions in people. All consumer complaints related to the sweetener have been investigated as thoroughly as possible by federal authorities for more than five years, in part under FDA's Adverse Reaction Monitoring System. In addition, scientific studies conducted during aspartame's pre-approval phase failed to show that it causes any adverse reactions in adults or children. Individuals who have concerns about possible adverse reactions to aspartame or other substances should contact their
physicians.

Q. Do additives cause childhood hyperactivity?

A. No. Although this theory was popularized in the 1970's, well-controlled studies conducted since that time have produced no evidence that food additives cause hyperactivity or learning disabilities in children. A Consensus Development Panel of the National Institutes of Health concluded in 1982 that there was no scientific evidence to support the claim that additives or colorings cause hyperactivity.

Q. Why are decisions sometimes changed about the safety of food ingredients?

A. Since absolute safety of any substance can never be proven, decisions about the safety of food ingredients are made on the best scientific evidence available. Scientific knowledge is constantly evolving. Therefore, federal officials
often review earlier decisions to assure that the safety assessment of a food substance remains up to date. Any change made in previous clearances should be recognized as an assurance that the latest and best scientific knowledge is being applied to enhance the safety of the food supply.

Q. What are some other food additives that may be used in the future?

A. Among other petitions, FDA is carefully evaluating requests to use ingredients that would replace either sugar or fat in food. In 1990, FDA confirmed the GRAS status of Simplesse, (registered trademark) a fat replacement made
from milk or egg white protein, for use in frozen desserts. The agency also is evaluating a food additive petition for olestra, which would partially replace the fat in oils and shortenings.

Q. What is the role of modern technology in producing food additives?

A. Many new techniques are being researched that will allow the production of additives in ways not previously possible. One approach, known as biotechnology, uses simple organisms to produce additives that are the same food components found in nature. In 1990, FDA approved the first bioengineered enzyme, rennin, which traditionally has been extracted from calves' stomachs for use in making cheese.

Why are additives food used in food ?

Additives perform a variety of useful functions in foods that are often taken for granted. Since most people no longer live on farms, additives help keep food wholesome and appealing while en route to markets sometimes thousands of
miles away from where it is grown or manufactured. Additives also improve the nutritional value of certain foods and can make them more appealing by improving their taste, texture, consistency or color.
Some additives could be eliminated if we were willing to grow our own food, harvest and grind it, spend many hours cooking and canning, or accept increased risks of food spoilage. But most people today have come to rely on themany technological, aesthetic and convenience benefits that additives provide in food.

Additives are used in foods for five main reasons:

To Maintain product consistency. Emulsifiers give products a consistent texture and prevent them from separating. Stabilizers and thickeners give smooth uniform texture. Anti-caking agents help substances such as salt to flow freely.
To improve or maintain nutritional value. Vitamins and minerals are added to many common foods such as milk, flour, cereal and margarine to make up for those likely to be lacking in a person's diet or lost in processing. Such fortification and enrichment has helped reduce malnutrition among the U.S. population. All
products containing added nutrients must be appropriately labeled.
To maintain palatability and wholesomeness. Preservatives retard product spoilage caused by mold, air, bacteria, fungi or yeast. Bacterial contamination can cause foodborne illness, including life-threatening botulism. Antioxidants are preservatives that prevent fats and oils in baked goods and other foods from
becoming rancid or developing an off-flavor. They also prevent cut fresh fruits such as apples from turning brown when exposed to air.
To provide leavening or control acidity/alkalinity. Leavening agents that release acids when heated can react with baking soda to help cakes, biscuits and other baked goods to rise during baking. Other additives help modify the acidity and alkalinity of foods for proper flavor, taste and color.
To enhance flavor or impart desired color. Many spices and natural and synthetic flavors enhance the taste of foods. Colors, likewise, enhance the appearance of certain foods to meet consumer expectations.
Examples of substances that perform each of these functions are provided in the chart "Common Uses of Additives."
Many substances added to food may seem foreign when listed on the ingredient label, but are actually quite familiar.
For example, ascorbic acid is another name for Vitamin C; alphatocopherol is another name for Vitamin E; and betacarotene is a source of Vitamin A. Although there are no easy synonyms for all additives, it is helpful to remember that all food is made up of chemicals. Carbon, hydrogen and other chemical elements provide the basic building
blocks for everything in life.

What is a colour additives ?

What is a Colour Additive?

A color additive is any dye, pigment or substance that can impart color when added or applied to a food, drug, or cosmetic, or to the human body. Color additives may be used in foods, drugs, cosmetics, and certain medical devices such as contact lenses. Color additives are used in foods for many reasons, including to offset color loss due to storage or processing of foods and to correct natural variations in food color.
Colors permitted for use in foods are classified as certified or exempt from certification. Certified colors are manmade, with each batch being tested by the manufacturer and FDA to ensure that they meet strict specifications for purity. There are nine certified colors approved for use in the United States. One example is FD&C Yellow No.6,which is used in cereals, bakery goods, snack foods and other foods.
Color additives that are exempt from certification include pigments derived from natural sources such as vegetables,minerals or animals. For example, caramel color is produced commercially by heating sugar and other carbohydrates under strictly controlled conditions for use in sauces, gravies, soft drinks, baked goods and other foods. Most colors exempt from certification also must meet certain legal criteria for specifications and purity.

What is food additives ?

A food additive is any substance added to food. Legally, the term refers to "any substance the intended use which results or may reasonably be expected to result-directly or indirectly-in its becoming a componentor otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food." This definition includes any substance used in the production,processing, treatment, packaging, transportation or storage of food.
If a substance is added to a food for a specific purpose in that food, it isreferred to as a direct additive.
For example,the low-calorie sweetener aspartame, which is used in beverages, puddings, yogurt, chewing gum and other foods, isconsidered a direct additive. Many direct additives are identified on the ingredient label of foods.Indirect food additives are those that become part of the food in trace amounts due to its packaging, storage or other handling. For instance, minute amounts of packaging substances may find their way into foods during storage. Food
packaging manufacturers must be proven by the Food and Drugs Administration.

Tuesday, 23 September 2008

Solutions to the problems with Nuts


— Avoiding Pesticides —The way to minimize your intake of pesticide residues and to induce nut farmers to turn to organic production is to choose organic or wild nuts. Unfortunately, less than 1% of US farmland dedicated to producing tree nuts is certified organic, and as of 2001, there were only 19 states that produced organic tree nuts. Additionally, small farmers may not have large enough production numbers to receive USDA certification.

The good news is that larger organic nut farmers will carry the USDA certified organic seal (or the seal from one of the USDA-accredited certifying agents), and your local store may stock organic nuts imported from other areas.

If your favorite store does not carry organic nuts, please ask them to do so. You can also buy organic nuts online; some shopping suggestions are included below.

— Tips and Alternatives —Nuts are sold in many different forms. Whole nuts, still in their shells are less expensive and will last up to a year without going rancid; just be sure to keep them in a cool, dry place. Shelled nuts—especially if they're roasted—may last longer if they are kept in the refrigerator. If you plan on storing them longer than six months, consider putting them in the freezer.

You can purchase nuts sliced and chopped. This may save you some work but it will also ensure that those nuts will go bad faster. Whenever possible, purchase whole shelled nuts and cut them up yourself.

Always discard any nuts that look moldy. Choose tree nuts more often than peanuts—they are less likely to have aflatoxin. Delicious nut butters can be made from pecans, walnuts, almonds and many others.

Problems with Nuts

There are a few problems with nuts you should be aware of. But don't worry; we will also suggest solutions!

Personal Health —Aflatoxin — Peanuts are among the top three crops that are subject to infestation by molds that produce aflatoxin, a potent human carcinogen. The toxin has been found in both peanuts and peanut butter, as well as corn, rice, wheat, soybeans, and sorghum. The USDA is responsible for testing peanuts and peanut products to ensure that they do not exceed acceptable levels of aflatoxin. While new methods for eliminating these molds are being implemented, there is still some concern about the long-term effects of ingesting low levels of aflatoxin.

Allergies — Peanuts and tree nuts are both on the list of the eight most common allergens. Children are more likely to develop allergies if their parents or siblings suffer from allergies to legumes or nuts, but even those with no family history of allergies are susceptible. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that particularly in families with histories of peanut allergies, nursing mothers should not consume peanuts and tree nuts. The American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology also recommends that children under the age of three not eat peanuts.

— Environmental —Pesticides abound in the production of nuts. A few examples follow.


Endosulfan is banned in many countries but legal in the US and India, where it is used in cashew production. This pesticide presents health risks to farm workers and to those living near where the chemical is used. In December 2003, Environmental Health Perspectives published a study linking endosulfan to delayed sexual maturation in boys in India. Animal studies indicate that the pesticide attacks the central nervous system, and can cause damage to the kidneys, testes, and liver. It is highly toxic to animals and fish as well.
Cyfluthrin, which has been used for decades on nuts, is known to be highly toxic to marine and freshwater organisms.
Phosmet, used on pistachios as well as apples and peaches, is highly toxic to honey bees.
Atrazine is one of the most widely used pesticides in the US. It is used on macadamia nuts, has been found in well water in the Midwest. It is known to harm aquatic organisms like fish and frogs, and there is some evidence that it may have a negative impact on human reproduction.
Diazinon, well known for its turf and residential pest control applications, is also used on walnuts and is highly toxic to honey bees and birds.
Once harvested, nuts are often fumigated with methyl bromide, a toxic pesticide. While methyl bromide probably won't cause any harm to you when you eat nuts or other treated crops, it is quite dangerous for the farm workers who use it. Also, it is such a large factor in ozone depletion that the countries around the world are phasing out its use.

Nuts - The surprising benefits to health ( Melaka EST Trial Question 08) - Paper 1

One of the most unexpected nutritional discoveries of the 1990s was that the frequent eating of nuts appears to dramatically improve health1. In particular, nut eating greatly lowers the risk of heart disease. In 1992 researchers working on the Adventist Health Study at Loma Linda University in California reported that those eating nuts daily had up to 60% fewer heart attacks than those who ate nuts less than once per month3. The beneficial effect of nut consumption was found for men, women, vegetarians, meat-eaters, fatter people, thinner people, the old, the young, those who did much exercise and those who did little exercise. The study was large, comprising 31,000 white Californian Seventh Day Adventists and similar benefits of nut eating were subsequently found for African Americans4. Prior to the publication of these results, nutritional advice had usually been to minimise nut consumption on the grounds that they were a "fatty" food.

Four other large studies have since confirmed the benefits to the heart of nut eating2, 5-8. In addition to the cardiac benefits of consuming nuts, the risks of having a stroke9, of developing type 2 diabetes10, of developing dementia11, of advanced macular degeneration12 and of gallstones 13 have all been found to be lowered by eating nuts. Calculations suggest that daily nut eaters gain an extra five to six years of life free of coronary disease14 and that regular nut eating appears to increase longevity by about 2 years.15.

The more often nuts are eaten the better as the benefits appear to increase as the frequency of nut consumption increases. The risk of fatal coronary disease and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes both appear to decrease steadily as nut consumption increases from less than once a week to once or more per day10, 16.

Just what quantity of nuts should be eaten? The studies above suggest that 30 to 60 grams (1-2oz) of nuts should be consumed daily to gain the maximum benefits seen. Whether even larger amounts confer further benefits is currently unknown.

Nuts are of course a fatty food and many might worry that they will put on weight by eating more nuts. After all, 30 grams (or one ounce) of most nuts contain about 800 kilojoules (200 kilocalories). Happily though, on present evidence, nuts do not seem to cause weight gain1,17. For example in the Nurses' Study the frequent nut consumers were actually a little thinner on average than those who almost never consumed nuts6, and daily supplements of almonds or peanuts for six months resulted in little or no increase in body weight18. Nuts appear to satisfy hunger sufficiently well to appropriately reduce the consumption of other food.

Which nuts are best? The definitive answer to this question is currently unknown. In the Adventist Study about about 32 percent of the nuts eaten were peanuts, 29 percent almonds, 16 percent walnuts, and 23 percent other types. These researchers did not ascertain whether the nuts were fresh, oil-roasted, or dry-roasted. The Nurses' Study found that peanuts, which are legumes, appeared to be just as effective in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease as tree nuts6. Experiments where volunteers were fed nuts as part of their diet for several weeks have found that walnuts19-22, almonds22-25, hazelnuts26, peanuts27, pecans28, pistachio nuts29 and macadamia nuts30 all alter the composition of the blood in ways that would be expected to reduce the risk of coronary disease. Chestnuts, a nut unusually low in fat, do not yet seem to have been studied. The best advice currently is probably to eat a variety of nuts. Walnuts though, because they contain n-3 fatty acids, may be particularly beneficial 31, but this requires further study. Coconuts, on account of their high saturated fat content, should probably be avoided.

It is not completely understood just why nuts are so consistently found to be healthy31. Nuts contain low levels of saturated fats and high levels of unsaturated fats. Consequently, as would be expected, studies have clearly shown that nut consumption lowers blood cholesterol levels. No doubt the lower cholesterol lowers the risk of heart disease.

Interestingly though the cholesterol is lowered by a larger amount than would be expected just from the favourable fatty acid composition of nuts31. However the reason for this is not clear. Nuts though are good sources of fibre, vitamin E, folic acid, copper, magnesium and the amino acid arginine, for each of which there is evidence of a role in preventing heart disease31. Nuts are the best dietary source of manganese and contain plant sterols, the compounds now added to some margarines to reduce cholesterol adsorption from food, and are a good source of boron32. The nutrient composition of nuts has been reviewed by King33 and by Chen34.

In New Zealand nuts are not a major part of the diet, most often being eaten in small quantities raw or as peanut butter. However nuts are very palatable and consumption could readily be increased. With a little imagination nuts can easily added to many recipes including home-baked bread, cakes, soups, main dishes, sauces, stuffings, salads and desserts. Waldorf salad, pesto and baklava are internationally well known examples. Thousands of recipes using nuts are readily available on the internet, at for example Epicurious, and RecipeSource. In Australia and New Zealand the peanut-based meat substitutes Nutolene and Nutmeat are manufactured by the Sanitarium food company.

Nut butters too are delicious, particularly peanut, almond, cashew and hazelnut butters. However most commercial peanut butters have saturated fats added to them to prevent oil separation so that it is probably healthier to seek out brands made from peanuts (and salt) only. Unfortunately, virtually all commercial peanut butters have salt added (salt tends to raise blood pressure). Alternatively peanut and other nut butters are easily made at home by roasting, and then grinding, mincing or blending the nuts.

Nuts are an important component of the Healthy Eating Pyramid 35 and peanut butter was a key component in a successful weight-loss study36. The success of this moderate-fat diet in enabling and maintaining weight loss has stimulated the development of a popular Peanut Butter Diet37 . Almonds were a major part of the vegetarian "Portfolio" diet38 which was just as effective for lowering cholesterol as the drug Lovastatin.

There is just one note of warning though. British39 and American40 surveys suggest that between one in one hundred and one in two hundred people may be allergic to one or more types of nuts. Both children and adults can be affected and the most common symptoms seem to be skin rashes and hoarseness in the throat41. For the large majority of the population though, an increase in nut consumption would appear to be desirable and "regular nut consumption can be recommended as a replacement for consumption of refined grain products or red or processed meats"10.

Thursday, 18 September 2008

Activities During English Class Form 1 Beta and 1 Omega (Ramadhan Month)

These are examples of English subject activities in Form 1 Beta 2008. Look at how creative, attentive,skillful they are when it comes to group or individual presentation and demonstration. Just look at how at ease they are when it comes to English lessons. In fact, communication is not only in classroom. They do communicate through IT technology...the fastest..which is E-mails. Isn't it fun learning English in MOZAC??? This is a living proof. So ...come to MOZAC and be part of our community.
Some of the topics they presented are on How to make chocolate cake, How to build own blog, How to play rugby, How to knot your tie,and How to change the layout in Friendster.

BubbleShare: Share photos - Create and Share Crafts

Thursday, 11 September 2008

Diet During Ramadhan

DIET DURING RAMADAN

According to Sunna (the practices of Prophet Muhammad, Pbuh) and research findings referred in this report, a dietary plan is given:

1. Bread/Cereal/Rice, Pasta, Biscuits and Cracker Group: 6-11 servings/day; 2. Meat/Beans/ Nut Group: 2-3 servings/day. 3. Milk and Milk Product Group: 2-3 servings/day. 4. Vegetable Group: 3-5 servings/day; 5. Fruit Group: 2-4 servings/day. 6. Added sugar (table sugar, sucrose): sparingly. 7. Added fat, polyunsaturated oil 4-7 table spoons.

Breakfast, iftar:

Dates, three

Juice, 1 serving (4 oz.)

Vegetable soup with some pasta or graham crackers, 1 cup

The body's immediate need at the time of iftar is to get an easily available energy source in the form of glucose for every living cell, particularly the brain and nerve cells. Dates and juices are good sources of sugars. Dates and juice in the above quantity are sufficient to bring low blood glucose levels to normal levels. Juice and soup help maintain water and mineral balance in the body. An unbalanced diet and too many servings of sherbets and sweets with added sugar have been found to be unhealthy, Gumma et al. (7).

Dinner:
Consume foods from all the following food groups:

Meat/Bean Group: Chicken, beef, lamb, goat, fish, 1-2 servings (serving size = a slice =1 oz); green pea, chickpea (garbanzo, chana, humus), green gram, black gram, lentil, lima bean and other beans, 1 serving (half cup). Meat and beans are a good source of protein, minerals, and certain vitamins. Beans are a good source of dietary fiber, as well.

Bread/Cereal Group: Whole wheat bread, 2 servings (serving size = 1 oz) or cooked rice, one cup or combination. This group is a good source of complex carbohydrates, which are a good source of energy and provide some protein, minerals, and dietary fiber.

Milk Group: milk or butter-milk (lassi without sugar), yogurt or cottage cheese (one cup). Those who can not tolerate whole milk must try fermented products such as butter-milk and yogurt. Milk and dairy products are good sources of protein and calcium, which are essential for body tissue maintenance and several physiological functions.

Vegetable Group: Mixed vegetable salad, 1 serving (one cup), (lettuce, carrot, parsley, cucumber, broccoli, coriander leaves, cauliflower or other vegetables as desired.) Add 2 teaspoons of olive oil or any polyunsaturated oil and 2 spoons of vinegar. Polyunsaturated fat provides the body with essential fatty acids and keto acids. Cooked vegetables such as guar beans, French beans, okra (bhindi), eggplant (baigan), bottle gourd (loki), cabbage, spinach, 1 serving (4 oz). Vegetables are a good source of dietary fiber, vitamin A, carotene, lycopenes, and other phytochemicals, which are antioxidants. These are helpful in the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and many other health problems.

Fruits Group: 1-2 servings of citrus and/or other fruits. Eat fruits as the last item of the dinner or soon after dinner, to facilitate digestion and prevent many gastrointestinal problems. Citrus fruits provide vitamin C. Fruits are a good source of dietary fiber.

Fruits and mixed nuts may be eaten as a snack after dinner or tarawiaha or before sleep.

Pre-dawn Meal (sahur):

Consume a light sahur. Eat whole wheat or oat cereal or whole wheat bread, 1-2 serving with a cup of milk. Add 2-3 teaspoons of olive oil or any other monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats in a salad or the cereal. Eat 1-2 servings of fruits, as a last item.

DISCUSSION

Blood cholesterol and uric acid levels are sometimes elevated during the month of Ramadan (8). Contrary to popular thinking, it was found that intake of a moderately high-fat diet, around 36% of the total energy (calories), improved blood cholesterol profile, Nomani, et al. (9) and Nomani (10). It also prevents the elevation of blood uric acid level (8-10). The normal recommended guideline for fat is 30% or less energy. On weight basis, suggested fat intake during Ramadan is almost the same as at normal days. Fat is required for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) and carotenoids. Essential fatty acids are an important component of the cell membrane. They also are required for the synthesis of the hormone prostaglandin. Keto-acids from fat are especially beneficial during Ramadan to meet the energy requirement of brain and nerve cells. Keto-acids also are useful in the synthesis of glucose through the metabolic pathway of gluconeogenesis. This reduces the breakdown of body proteins for glucose synthesis. Therefore, the energy equivalent of 1-2 bread/cereal servings may be replaced with polyunsaturated fat.

During Ramadan increased gastric acidity is often noticed, Iraki, et al. (5), exhibiting itself with symptoms such as a burning feeling in the stomach, a heaviness in the stomach, and a sour mouth. Whole wheat bread, vegetables, humus, beans, and fruits -- excellent sources of dietary fiber -- trigger muscular action, churning and mixing food, breaking food into small particles, binding bile acids, opening the area between the stomach and the deudenum-jejunum and moving digesta in the small intestine, Kay (11). Thus, dietary fiber helps reduce gastric acidity and excess bile acids, Rydning et al. (12). In view of dietary fiber's role in moving digesta, it prevents constipation. It's strongly suggested that peptic ulcer patients avoid spicy foods and consult a doctor for appropriate medicine and diet. Diabetic subjects, particularly severe type I (insulin dependent) or type II (non-insulin dependent), must consult their doctor for the type and dosage of medicine, and diet and precautions to be taken during the month. Generally diabetes mellitus, type II, is manageable through proper diet during Ramadan, Azizi and Siahkolah (13).

Pregnant and lactating women's needs for energy and nutrients are more critical than the needs of men (14). There is a possibility of health complications to the pregnant woman and the fetus or the lactating mother and the breastfed child, if energy and nutrient requirements are not met during the month of Ramadan (15-19). Governments, communities, and heads of the family must give highest priority to meet women's dietary needs. In African countries, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and many other places malnutrition is a major problem, especially among women from low-income groups. Further more, it is common among these women to perform strenuous work on farms or in factories, and other places. Malnutrition and strenuous conditions may lead to medical problems and danger to life. Under these conditions one must consult a medical doctor for treatment and maulana or shiekh for postponement or other suggestions regarding fasting. Quran Al-Hakeem and Hadith allow pregnant women and lactating mothers flexibility during the month of Ramadan.

For practical purposes and estimation of nutrients a diet was formulated, given below:

Iftar:
3 dates, 1/2 cup of orange juice, 1 cup of vegetable soup, 2 plain graham crackers; dinner: 1 cup of vegetable salad with two teaspoons of corn oil and two teaspoon of vinegar, 2 oz. of chicken, 1/2 cup of okra, 4 oz. of cooked whole chana (garbanzo), 3 tea spoon of oil while cooking main dishes, 2 slices of whole wheat bread, 1 cup of cooked rice, 3/4 cup of plain yogurt, one orange, 1/2 cup grapes, 1 oz of nuts-mixed roasted-without salt; sahur: 2 slices of whole wheat bread, 1 cup of milk, 1/4 cup of vegetable salad with two teaspoons of corn oil and two teaspoons of vinegar, 1 skinned apple, 2 teaspoons of sugar with tea or coffee.

Nutritionist IV (20) was used to estimate energy and nutrient content in the above diet, which was as follows: energy, 2136 kilocalories; protein, 70g; carbohydrate , 286g; fat, 87g, 35 % of energy of the total intake, (saturated fat 16.9g; mono saturated, 28.4g; poly unsaturated, 34g; other 7.3g; - oleic, 25.6g; linoleic, 29.5; linolenic, 0.6g; EPA-Omega-3, 0.006g; DHA-omega-3, 0.023g; dietary fiber 34g; calcium, 1013mg; sodium, 3252 mg; potassium, 2963mg; iron 13.3mg; zinc, 10mg. When the nutrients were compared with the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), for an adult non-pregnant and non-lactating female (14), the diet met 100% or more of the RDA for protein, calcium, sodium, potassium, and vitamin A, K, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, folate, and C. The energy was close to the RDA, (97%). The dietary fiber level also was met as per the recommendation (11). Consuming food in the above amount by pregnant or lactating female may not meet the RDA for all of the nutrients. They may need supplementation of some minerals and vitamins such as, iron vitamin D, and more energy through bread or rice.

Further suggestions:

Drink sufficient water between Iftar and sleep to avoid dehydration.

Consume sufficient vegetables at meal s. Eat fruits at the end of the meal.

Avoid intake of high sugar (table sugar, sucrose) foods through sweets or other forms.

Avoid spicy foods.

Avoid caffeine drinks such as coke, coffee or tea. Caffeine is a diuretic. Three days to five days before Ramadan gradually reduce the intake of these drinks. A sudden decrease in caffeine prompts headaches, mood swings and irritability.

Smoking is a health risk factor. Avoid smoking cigarettes. If you cannot give up smoking, cut down gradually starting a few weeks before Ramadan. Smoking negatively affects utilization of various vitamins, metabolites and enzyme systems in the body.

Do not forget to brush or Miswak (tender neem tree branch, Azhardicta indica or other appropriate plant in a country, about 1/4-1/2 inch diameter and 6-8 inches length, tip partially chewed and made brush like). Brush your teeth before sleep and after sahur. Brush more than two times or as many times as practicable.

Normal or overweight people should not gain weight. For overweight people Ramadan is an excellent opportunity to lose weight. Underweight or marginally normal weight people are discouraged from losing weight. Analyzing a diet's energy and nutritional component, using food composition tables or computer software, will be useful in planning an appropriate diet.

It is recommended that everyone engage in some kind of light exercise, such as stretching or walking. It's important to follow good time management practices for Ibada (prayer and other religious activities), sleep, studies, job, and physical activities or exercise.

In summary, intake of a balanced diet is critical to maintain good health, sustain an active lifestyle and attain the full benefits of Ramadan.

Benefits of dates dan prayer to Muslims

Why is it considered healthy to break the Ramadan fast with dates, and why are Muslims recommended to pray before iftar?




Breaking the fast with dates is a Ramadan tradition, as most of its benefits are unique to this particular fast. Breaking one’s fast with dates, as well as praying before iftar, are both mentioned in the Hadith literature: "The Messenger of Allah would break his fast with ripe dates before he would pray. If those were not available, he would eat dried dates. If those were not available, he would drink some water.”



One of the many physical benefits of breaking the fast with dates is that our body benefits from the date’s high level of natural sugars. Sugars travel most quickly to the liver, where they are converted into energy more quickly than any other nutrient. Muslims have an immediate need for this energy when they break their fast, for they need energy to perform their sunset prayers. Ironically, one also needs this energy to consume the iftar meal. When a person eats, the body uses energy to digest the food. Eating large quantities of food immediately after fasting is not healthy for the body, which is in a weakened condition. Eating a date first helps the body start its digestive process and gives it the energy to deal with the secondary, more complex foods, eaten during ifta.



Dates are also high in vitamins A and B6, folic acid, potassium, natural sodium, iron, and magnesium. Thus, eating dates daily during Ramadan is like taking a daily multivitamin. This daily multivitamin can create a stronger and healthier body, one more fit for fasting. Dates also contain large amounts of dietary fiber, which can prevent any constipation that might result from eating the traditionally rich foods served during Ramadan. Additionally, dates protect the stomach and intestinal tract from parasites and bacteria, and thus is a good preventative medicine when eating iftar at unfamiliar locations.



Dates also have a special place in Islam. In fact, they were one of the Prophet’s (SAW) most frequently consumed foods. For this reason, their benefit is most likely spiritual as well as physical. If their benefit were purely physical, one could perhaps consume any fruit high in natural sugars before iftar to gain similar benefits. However, the act of following the Prophet’s (SAW) tradition is one way of connecting and remembering him, which is spiritually beneficial for Muslims.



One should pray after eating dates and before eating the main meal, because this short break gives the body time to metabolize the dates and water that have been consumed and to start the body’s digestive processes, which have been resting all day. Eating large amounts of food immediately after breaking the fast resembles starting a car and the driving it without giving it enough time to warm up. As we know, this can damage the engine’s internal mechanics.



The same is true with the body, for jumpstarting the body’s digestive processes can shock the entire organ system. In some cases, this shock could be dangerous. In most cases, however, it is simply an unhealthy way to break the fast. The immediate dangers are apparent in the increased need to sleep after the iftar. This sleepy feeling comes about because the body has expended so much energy on the digestive system that it needs to lower its other bodily functions in order to perform its digestive duties properly. Over time, this habit can cause long-term damage to the body.

Tuesday, 26 August 2008

Learning English with A Difference


This is how the students of Form One learn English.



The ICT Carnival at Jempol, Negeri Sembilan




Two English teachers, Pn Amesah and Pn Haniza participated in a SMART school ICT Carnival at Jempol NS from 23.8.08-24.8.08 representing MDEC and BTP. They used a new ICT device called EIkit for a teaching and learning demonstration to 7 friendly and active students of SMK Serting. What a great time they had!

This is a blog produced by one of the students. DO PAY A VISIT TO THIS BLOG

Friday, 22 August 2008

List of occupations you need to know

Hi there,

Here is the list of occupations you need to know. Click Me.

Thursday, 21 August 2008

Tuesday, 12 August 2008

Earth Day Competition : The Finalists


The Proud Malaysians



HAPPY BIRTHDAY MALAYSIAAAAAAAAAA !!!!

Happy 51st Independence Day Malaysia

MOZAC Science Poem 11

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PHENOMENON

Greetings, ladies and gentlemen,
Stand up for what is true,
Show concern for the environment,
The ones with courage are few.

World development is countless,
In all countries, rich or poor,
Sophisticated technology is endless,
New inventions are on the rise for sure.

Clever scientists are our pride,
Machines created, burden eased,
Misuse brings destruction to your side,
Like poison suddenly released.

Reflect on the use of development,
Don’t let it destroy the world,
Give protection to the environment,
It is more precious than a pearl.

Pollution is a daily affair,
Mother earth is in constant battle,
Chemical gases are polluting the air,
A big problem that we must settle.

Suffocating in smoke and haze,
Brutality of modern machinery,
We are all stuck in a maze,
Our lungs are heading for misery.

Humankind must stop and ponder,
Cherish the good and clear the flaw,
Come all, hold hands and surrender,
And vow not to mess with nature’s law.

MOZAC Science Poem 10

THE SEA

A blue carpet, vast and endless,
Under moving clouds, white and grey,
Shimmering waves, steady and ceaseless,
Beating the shore, night and day.

I bring peace to those in need,
I help fishermen make a living,
Seagulls fly above me to feed,
Within me fish are surviving.

In charge of a world beneath the sea,
Creatures and plants of different species,
The supply of oxygen comes from me,
I keep all alive and free from disease.

What I have is what you want,
An abundant source of protein,
Wish for seafood I shall grant,
Squids or seaweed…what do you mean?

The heavy seems weightless in me,
Every move made, is safe and effortless,
Humans and whales swim easily,
Drowning in the ‘Dead Sea’ is meaningless.

During monsoons in December, I’m dangerous,
Fishermen die in my dire turbulence,
When tsunami strikes, I’m heartless,
Believe me, everyone will need an ambulance.

MOZAC Science Poem 8

THE SUN

Lady Earth...
I watch you silently...
149.6 million kilometers away
Filled with helium and hydrogen
Burning typical yellow...
In true majesty...
Devotion!

Lady Earth...
There’s nuclear fusion in my heart!!!
Sheer energy...
Transported to my face,
From the central core of emotion,
Oh! It radiates into space
Can’t you feel the heat?
Can’t you see the light?
Forever...
Reaching out to you!!!

Lady Earth...
I watch you silently...
Dusk till dawn,
Through dark night,
I light a moon...
The torch of love,
To shine your way...

Lady Earth...
Don’t walk away...
Just once...
Look at me,
A star, so close to you...
The Sun!!!
Then softly whisper,
Consent

MOZAC Science Poem 9

FIRE

Flames burning bright,
Feeding on wood and oxygen,
Emitting light…
Illuminating darkness…
Dispensing heat…
Killing the chill!!!
I burn…
Burn…

In gentle flames…
Comes delicious meals,
In controlled heat,
Rises cakes and cookies,
Great to taste!!!
Lips praise…
Praise…
In giant flames,
Homes turn to ashes,
In fiery speed,
Great forests are destroyed,
Unbearable pain!!!
Hearts curse…
Curse…

Flames burning bright,
Feeding on a candle wax,
Guiding light…
Offering friendship…
Leading gently…
Killing fear!!!
I burn…
Burn…

MOZAC Science Poem 6

MILK

Milk is as precious as a mother,
Gives nutrition on par with her love,
Milk and mother go together,
A pair like angels above.

To the newborn, sweeter then honey,
The first taste of being alive,
You can’t buy this with money,
It’s a chance to grow and strive.

Fluid secreted by mammary glands,
For mammals their young to feed,
Its composition accordingly blends,
From mother’s diet to its breed.

Antibodies avoid infection,
Calcium for bones and teeth,
Vitamins prolong protection,
Balance diet to live and breathe.

Powdered milk from the cow,
Enriched, high-cal or low-fat,
They substitute a mother somehow,
Still she is the best, believe that.

MOZAC Science Poem 7

SPIDERS

Spiders have eight legs,
Arachnid is their name,
Spiderlings hatch from eggs,
Hunting is their game.


Spiders spin their homes,
Netlike silky, sticky webs,
Trapping insects that roams,
Which the spider nabs.


Some spiders are large and hairy,
Tarantulas and black widows bite,
Of its pain and poison be wary,
Never let a spider out of sight.

MOZAC Science Poem 5

FISH

Where there’s water, there’s fish,
Be it from saltwater or freshwater,
The fish is an excellent dish,
And with the right recipe, tastes better.

Put the fish in three groups,
Perch and Salmon are just ‘bony’,
Sharks and Rays are ‘cartilaginous’ troupes,
Lampreys hand Hagfish, ‘jawless’ and funny.

Gills are tiny blood-filled filaments,
Extracting oxygen from water,
There’s no other breathing elements,
So ‘Death’ is a crucial matter.

Humans needs limbs, fish needs fins,
Dorsal and anal fins help in balancing,
Pelvic and pectoral fins steer sharp as pins,
Caudal fins know where they’re heading.

Sensing surroundings with lateral line system,
Detecting subtle changes in water pressure,
Fish dance according to aqua rhythm,
Scales give protection, they’re treasure.

Some fish lay eggs, some don’t,
Others give birth in reproduction,
Some feed their young, some won’t,
A life cycle of great creation.

MOZAC Science Poem 4

THE EAR

Pinna says…
“My dear,
The ear is to hear
Do not…
Fear the ear!”

Pinna…
Traps sound-waves,
Pushes victims into murky darkness,
The auditory canal.

Seeking help…
Victims beat eardrums.
Ceaseless vibrations travel…
The three ossicles,
Hammer,
Anvila
And stirrup…
“Wake up! Detective Cochlea!
Nerve wrecker!
Send this message for decoding.

Call Dr. Semicircular Canals!
What?
Line damaged?
Instability…
Imbalance…
Will be the result!

Beware!
The destined enemy…
High frequency!
Promise of ultimate loneliness
Being stone deaf…

Pinna still says…
“My dear,
The ear is to hear,
Do not…
Fear the ear!”

MOZAC Science Poem 2

FLOWER AND POLLINATION

Flowers are a beautiful sight,
They soothe your mind and soul,
Symbolize love, so warm and bright,
Lift you up when you’re cold and down.

Red rose signifies everlasting love,
Hibiscus is worshipped by the nation,
Frangipani brings news from above,
Flowers are truly an attraction.

The cycle of life starts to bloom,
In a blossom so sweet yet fragile,
Without fruits and trees comes doom,
To a flower so perfect and agile.

Stigma crowns its pretty head,
Flanged by proud filaments,
Supporting stamens that are made,
To keep pollen in its compartment.





Colourful petals and fragrance as bait,
For butterflies, ladybirds, bats and bees,
Ovary and ovules, both patiently wait,
For a match to love and leave in peace.

Alas, the arrival promises a wedding,
In self or inter pollination,
A seed capsule is born and budding,
An offspring for procreation.

MOZAC Science Poem 3

THE BRAIN

Oh brain!
On the throne...
The king of kings!

Worth...
A hundred billion neurons
Leading...
The entire nervous system
And communication network
Salute...
The Mighty One!

Protected...
By an armour of skull
Family of
Cerebellum, cerebrum
And medulla oblongata
The Mighty One!

Memory...
Absorbing, expanding, evolving,
Storage...
Beyond the ability of computers,
With gift of creative ideas,
Salute...
The Mighty One!

Oh brain!
On the throne...
The king of kings!

MOZAC Science Poem 1

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Chloroplast…
In green leaves...
Locked in sheer embrace…
Hot…
Under the morning rays

Roots!
Suck water from soil
Glistening rich!
In a sudden rush
Of moisture…
Leaves refreshed!

Carbon dioxide escapes…
Swiftly…
Creeps into the stoma…
Underneath the lip-shaped cells…
Its hiding place…
Spreading…
Green shades on the epidermis…


Behold!!!
The birth of carbohydrate…
Glostarch!
The sign of strength,
The symbol of energy,
The secret of activity,
Docile beings…
Function…
Dry bodies…
Dampen…

The living…
Support…
Witness…
Participate…
In this cycle of life,
A beautiful panorama…
Colourful…
Magical…
Magnificent…

We stare…
Mesmerized…

Monday, 21 July 2008

Wednesday, 18 June 2008

The Importance of Animals or Beasts

What is it about animals that they "get through" to the most severely impaired children? How can animals reach a human mind dead-ened to anything else? It's not mystical or spiritual, but elementary biology. Animals are and always have been throughout our evolution the most stimulating, fascinating things in the world around us. Today, dulled as we are by the high-tech, fast-paced world we have made for ourselves, we see animals as remote and irrelevant.

We may not have animals consciously on our minds very often today; nonetheless they are alive at the deepest levels of our consciousness. Their importance to the human mind and culture is well known to art historians, folklorists and anthropologists.

The animal presence was best explained by biologist Paul Shepard in his 1978 book, Thinking Animal Animals, he said, got our attention more than anything else in nature as we were evolving. "Animals," Shepard wrote, "are among the first inhabitants of the mind's eye. They are basic to the development of speech and thought. Because of their part in the growth of consciousness, they are inseparable from the series of events in each human life. indispensable to our becoming human in the fullest sense."

Throughout our evolution, animals have helped us come to terms with the strange and wonderful world around us. When we lived as foragers with Earth-bound religions, animals were the First Beings and world-shapers, and the teachers and ancestors of people. When we became agriculturists and looked to the heavens for instruction about the seasons and the elements, we saw animal forms among the stars. Of the 48 Ptolemaic constellations, all but a few are organic, and 25 are named for animals. Of the 22 more that were added in the 17th century, 19 have animal names. When we built colossal earthworks to appeal to the power in the heavens, we built them in animal forms.

In Ice-age eaves, the first art shows the human fascination with animal forms. Animals were thought to embody the spirits and powers of nature, and, as art historians know, animals have been used to symbolize nature ever since. In ancient Egypt, Hathor, the cow goddess of the sky, was believed to have given birth to the sun. The sky was seen as a giant cow, her legs the four corners of the world. Ancient astronomers explained the workings of the universe by reference to the zodiac, which means, literally, "the circle of animals." Universally, animals have bonded us to the rest of the living world.

Animals must feed and empower the human mind like nothing else, for we see their presence also in children's toys, in nursery rhymes, in Aesop's fables, and in other moral tales. And we see the animal presence in language, where they provide the basis for some 5,000 expressions.

A GRADUAL ALIENATION

We tend not to think about the importance of animals anymore. In taking over the world, we have marginalized animals, reduced them from kinfolk, powers, and spirits to commodities, sources of spare parts and pests. Animals no longer matter -- or so we like to think.

But they do matter, and in powerful ways that we need to understand if we are to come to terms with nature. In reducing animals' stature, we reduced all of nature and constructed a world view in which people are above and apart from nature. This "dominionist" worldview was built, most agree, during the transition from foraging to farming that occurred between 10,000 and 5,000 years ago. Marginalizing animals was a cornerstone of the whole edifice, for more than any other agricultural development, it broke up the old ideas of kinship and continuity with the living world.

When early herders and farmers intensified their uses of animals, they needed ways to suppress their older beliefs in animal spirit-powers. People were, after all, gradually enslaving their former gods, teachers and ancestors. Before animals could become tools and commodities, they had to be brought down from their pedestals. Over time, the emerging culture came up with a new set of beliefs about animals' essential evil and baseness. Those combined to form an attitude of hatred and contempt for animals.

Today, we describe serial killers and other criminals as "animals" or "beasts" when we want to describe their lust, cruelty or senseless violence -- all behaviors that are, nature writer John Rodman notes, "more frequently observed on the part of men than of beasts."

A sample essay on The Importance of Animals

Essay by Anita Misra, (1997)

Ever since the dawn of time man and animals have co-existed in the same environment. Scientifically, man himself is classified as an animal with similar needs. Although animals have killed man and man has hunted animals alike, theirs is a symbiotic relationship which cannot be refuted whatever age or time.

In Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, the existence of a conducive eco-system is highly dependent on the interaction between man and beast.

Different types of animals occupy various strata in the food chain of which man is invariably a part. Man relies on animals for food. Most people eat chicken, beef, mutton and pork as well as eggs and milk.

The very existence of man and the nourishment he needs from the time he is a baby comes mostly from animals.

Vegetarians and vegans have argued that they do not rely on animals for food. This is a false assumption as the vegetables and plants that feed the people are highly dependent on animals. In the wild, the animals eat the plants; if no animals ate the plants, there would be an overcrowding of weeds which would lead to the unhealthy development of plant life, resulting in an imbalance in the eco-system.

Animals also help in dispersing the seeds of fruits and vegetables in excretion. This helps to ensure that there is a continuity in the abundance of plant life. The circle of life is held in place by the animals, ie. the animals eat the plants, the animals help the plants reproduce and man eats both the animal and the plant. The faeces of the animals also help in the growth of the plants. When animals die, their decaying bodies also provide nourishment for the plants which in turn nourish the human beings. In vegetable farms, most organic fertilizers also come from decaying animal and plant matter.

Besides food, man also relies on animals for his livelihood. This can be analysed in two ways: indirectly and directly. Agriculturally based countries such as Australia and Argentina rely on some animals to get rid of other animals which might harm their crops. For instance, following the agriculture downturn in Argentina, state authorities released hundreds of foxes to kill the rabbits which were devouring agricultural produce in the field itself and causing great losses to the farmers.

Farmers also use animals, eg. oxen, to plow their land.

More directly, many people use animals as a means of living.

In India hundreds of thousands of people train animals to perform on the streets. Monkeys, cobras and donkeys provide a source of income for their owners and entertainment for the public. The circus works on this concept. Which circus will thrive without the wonderful pantheon of animals? The zoo and the Night Safari also use animals to entertain as well to collect revenue from the tourist industry to pump into the economy. Policemen also use animals like dogs for sniffing out drugs or carrying out search and rescue.

Animals are also crucial in the education of mankind. Medical students often use animals in the laboratory sessions to effectively understand concepts of anatomy. In scientific research, animals are used as guinea pigs to test a product before it is used on humans.

This has often been labelled the exploitation of animals but the importance of using animals to test new products is undeniable. Although human life is placed above that of animals, the necessity of animals to ensure certain aspects of safety for man is critical.

The social standing of man in some ways can be gauged from animals.

If a man has two oxen in India, he is given due respect and if he were to lose the oxen, it would be akin to losing his honour. In the olden days, even today, the possession of horses was considered a great achievement. In medieval France, if a man were to lose his horse due to sheer carelessness, he would often mete out severe punishment upon himself. Using animals to gauge social status might seem frivolous and flippant on the surface, but it has been practised for thousands of years and the importance of animals serving this function will continue in strong focus.

Animals also help develop the emotional and psychological well-being of people. Many people who keep pets such as dogs develop a strong emotional bonding with the animals. They tend to embrace qualities such as sensitivity and loyalty. Of course this is not true with some people who are prone to violent behaviour around animals but studies have shown that most people who have pets around them tend to be gentler, kinder and more loyal. They also develop a sense of responsibility. Children who have pets grow up, often taking these characteristics with them.

Animals also have a therepeutic quality which makes them good healers together with medicine. Some years ago, a girl in Ohio was suffering from high fever with no sign of recovering. Her parents requested her dog to be placed by her bedside and miraculously, within two days, she was on the road to recovery. This phenomenon has been difficult to explain but has been proven effective many times when the emotional boundaries between man and beast break down.

There are many other ways in which man relies on animals, for instance, clothing and accessories. Animals are a source of nourishment, a business as well as emotional and intellectual entities for man.

Unfortunately, Man has taken animals for granted, destroying wildlife and exploiting it unnecessarily for his own selfish reasons. No matter what the animal: carnivore, herbivore or omnivore, they all play a crucial role, directly or indirectly in the existence of man and this aspect of animals has to be understood before man can live blissfully in a symbiotic relationship with them.

Content: 24/30, Language = 16/20, Total = 40/50 (A1).
Well done. Quite the best I have read on this topic. It is mature and sophisticated in tone - even though it covers predictable areas.

resource : http://schools.moe.edu.sg/rjc/subjects/english/gp/downloads/misc-animals.htm

Sunday, 15 June 2008

How to Play String Instrument using Physic terms

How to play a string instrument using physics terms?

Homework question please help!
Describe the physical process that occurs as your instrument is played and produces sound. Begin with force and finish with detection by the human ear. Include types of waves produced and any and all technical (physics) terms possible. Extra points may be given for terms from 1st semester. (pressure, force, newtons laws)

Answer

You pluck or pull or bang on a string that is stretched between two fixed points. Because it's fixed at two points, that limits the wavelengths that are possible--the endpoints have to be nodes of the wave, so the wavelength must be 2, 2/3, 2/5, 2/7, 2/9, etc times the length of the string. These are the harmonics of the string.

Waves on a string travel at a fixed speed--the square root of tension over density. So if you know the speed and the harmonic wavelengths, you know the harmonic frequencies.

So when you deform the string, it will vibrate with all its harmonic frequencies. The ratio of the frequencies depends on the shape of the deformation. You could use Fourier analysis to figure this out. If you create a sharp deformation by plucking the string, you get a lot of the higher harmonics, so the sound is very twangy. If you strum it gently, you get mostly the principal frequency and the sound is smoother.

The sound is produced when the vibrating string bangs into the surrounding air and causes pressure disturbances. These pressure disturbances propagate into the surrounding air (which is what sound is).

If you want more basic physics on how a wave propagates through a string, read this wiki:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vibrating_string
basics of sound:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound#Physi...

Hydrophonics System : Continuous Flow Systems

Continuous Flow Systems

Most commercial hydroponic systems direct a continuous flow of nutrient solution over the plant roots. One continuous flow system uses polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe of the type commonly used for household waste plumbing. A 2-inch pipe for lettuce or a 4- to 6-inch pipe for tomatoes may be set up with a slight gradient to allow for flow of the solution. Holes of 1- to 1 1/2-inch diameter are drilled in the pipe, and the plants are inserted into the holes. Lettuce plants will support themselves if they have been started in growing cubes. Tomato plants must be supported with wire or string.

The nutrient solution is held in a large tank and pumped or allowed to flow by gravity to the growing pipes. The continuously flowing nutrient solution bathes the roots and then returns to the holding tank. The solution aerates itself as it flows back into the tank.

Major problems with using PVC pipe are its relatively high initial cost and the need for cleaning. After a crop has been grown in the pipe, it should be thoroughly cleaned with a 0.5 to 1.0 percent sodium hypochlorite solution (made by mixing one part of household bleach with nine parts of water) to prevent contamination from disease organisms.

With the nutrient film technique (NFT) the same methods but less expensive materials are used. A flexible plastic tube supported by a wooden tray is used in place of rigid PVC pipe. The tube is made of black plastic film (much like the plastic film mulch use for gardens) with holes punched at specified intervals. The plants are started in root cubes and then placed in the tube where they are bathed in a continuous flow of nutrient solution.

A variation of the continuous flow system is marketed as the Pipe Dream. This system uses 2-inch corrugated plastic drainage pipe placed vertically in a 6-inch drainage pipe for tomatoes or a 2-inch pipe for lettuce (Figure 8). A plastic mesh tube filled with peat moss is placed in the vertical tube and allowed to hang into the horizontal pipe. A nutrient solution flowing in the horizontal pipe supplies water and fertilizer, which move up into the peat moss and thus to the plant roots. Although seeds can be planted directly in the peat moss, it is best to start with transplants.

Hydrophonics System : Aeroponics

Aeroponics

The adventurous hobbyist may wish to try an even more exotic method of growing plants. In the aeroponic system the roots of the plant grow in a closed container. A misting system bathes the roots in a film of nutrient solution and keeps them near 100 percent relative humidity to prevent drying.

The container may be of almost any design as long as it is moisture proof and dark. Tomatoes may be grown in tall, narrow containers lined with plastic. Lettuce and strawberries have been grown in A-frame containers (Figure 7) to make the best use of available space and light.


Position the spray nozzles so that at least a portion of each plant's roots are sprayed directly. You may leave the nozzles on at low pressure continuously or operate them intermittently, on for 20 seconds and off for 40 seconds. A fungicide may be added to the solution to avoid root rot pathogens.

Hydrophonics System : Aggregate Culture

Aggregate Culture

Growing plants in aggregates such as sand or gravel is often preferred to the water culture method since the aggregate helps to support the roots. The aggregate is held in the same type of tank as is used for a water culture system. The nutrient solution is held in a separate tank and pumped into the aggregate tank to moisten the roots as needed. After the aggregate has been flooded it is drained to provide aeration. Enough water and nutrients cling to the aggregate and roots to supply the plant until the next flooding

The solution is generally pumped to within 1 inch of the surface and then allowed to drain. If the top surface of the bed is kept dry, the growth of algae will be minimal. To allow rapid drainage, the aggregate must be coarse. Use sand with particles of at least 1/16-inch diameter or gravel of about 1/4- to 3/8-inch diameter. The best aggregates are silica gravel, granite, basalt, or smooth river-bottom rock of the inert type that contains no calcium. Larger aggregates will require more frequent flooding, whereas smaller aggregates will not drain properly. In small, experimental units you may use any of several different substances. Perlite, Styrofoam, and crushed marbles have all been used successfully by hobbyists.

The aggregate should be flooded for about 10 minutes and allowed to drain for no longer than 30 minutes.

4 Hydrophonics systems

HYDROPONIC SYSTEMS

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.Water Culture or Aquaculture
2.Aggregate Culture
3.Aeroponics
4.Continuous Flow Systems




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


1. Water Culture or Aquaculture

The water culture method of hydroponics is the simplest to set up on a small scale. In this system the plant roots are totally immersed in a nutrient solution. The major disadvantages of this system are the large amount of water required per plant and the need to aerate the solution continuously.

The actual design of the system is limited only by the imagination of the builder. The system must provide means to (1) support the plant above the solution, (2) aerate the solution, and (3) prevent light from reaching the solution (to prevent the growth of algae).

A standard tray or tank is shown in Figure 1. The tray may be made of concrete or of plastic-lined or asphalt-sealed wood. If you use asphalt to seal the tank, be sure that it does not contain creosote or tars. Do not use asphalt that leaves an oil film on the surface of the water. A typical size is 6 to 12 inches deep, 2 to 3 feet wide, and as long as is convenient. The plants can be supported by inserting them through holes drilled in a plywood top or through holes punched in a l-inch-thick Styrofoam sheet that floats on the surface of the solution.

You can make a small system from a child's wading pool, a plastic pail, a fish tank, or a drinking tumbler. A large tomato plant should be grown in a container that holds at least 2 gallons as the solution in a smaller container will be used up too quickly. Lettuce plants, on the other hand, may be grown in smaller containers.


Short plants such as lettuce and spinach will usually support themselves. Drill a 1-inch hole in the Styrofoam or wooden cover and insert a transplant. The plant may be held in place by packing a flexible material such as cotton into the hole around the stem. A plant started in sand, perlite, or vermiculite can be transplanted easily to the water culture system because these materials can be washed from the roots readily.


Vining plants such as cucumbers and tomatoes must be supported by string. When pruned to a single stem they can be wrapped around a loosely hung string as they grow (Figure 2).
Aerate the solution continuously by pumping air through a perforated hose or pipe immersed in the solution. For small systems an aquarium pump and porous stone will work. Do not bubble the solution too vigorously because excessive movement may damage the tender roots and impair plant growth.

Change the nutrient solution every two weeks when the plants are small and once a week as they begin to mature. Add water daily to keep the solution level constant.

What is hydrophonics?





Hydroponics from the Greek 'water working', is simply growing plants without soil. (Hydro=water and Ponic=working)

Hydroponics may also be called 'controlled environmental agriculture'.

In a complete controlled environmental agriculture system you control:
light, temperature, water, CO2, oxygen, pH and nutrients

A Hydroponic Garden is low maintenance and efficient. Every other day a pH check is done and water level topped up. Nutrient is changed every 7 - 12 days. A timer is recommended to automatically turn the light and garden on and off.

Tips Propagating Seeds

optimum temperature 75 degree F to 85 degrees F
optimum humidity 80% to 90% Relative
remove humidity tent daily
24 hours light until first true leaves appear
then remove humidity tent, 18 hours of light/day
use only diluted nutrient on seedlings
seed soak-foliar feed-Superthrive BI harden -off, increases light and nutrient levels gradually
foliar feed nitrozyme for 3-5 day harden off period
bolting-increase light intensity and/or ventilation
yellow leaves-increase vegetative nutrient strength

Tips Propagating Stem Cuttings

use 6" humidity dome
18 hours light/day
rooting hormones-Wilson roots, Stim Roots, Willow water
remove largest leaves to avoid wilting
remove tent permanently after 10 days
damping off fungi-better air circulation,and/or treat with damp off
browning leaf tips-to much nutrient.

Thursday, 12 June 2008

In my opinion ...

Hello..listen..the future leader is speaking ...ehem..listen to his opinion shhhh..
video

Opss...cut..cut camera cut

video

This is one of the activities done in English Language Class. They did perfectly well before the shot was taken. But, oh well..they were just camera shy he he he. Anyway, what an act...bravo..bravo.

Monday vs Friday

video

Monday, 9 June 2008

The Amazing Twins







A mixed-race British mom gave birth to twins recently

one of each.

No, not a boy and a girl.


Two girls - one black, the other white.

The odds of such a birth are about a million to one,

experts said .

Sleep: A Necessity, Not A Luxury

To learn more, visit this website


SUNDAY, June 8 (HealthDay News) -- The pace of life gets faster and faster, and people try to cram more and more into every minute of the day.
As things get more hectic, sleep tends to get short shrift. It's seen as wasted time, lost forever.
"For healthy people, there's a big temptation to voluntarily restrict sleep, to stay up an hour or two or get up an hour or two earlier," said Dr. Greg Belenky, director of the Sleep and Performance Research Center at Washington State University Spokane.
"But you're really reducing your productivity and exposing yourself to risk," Belenky added.
That's a message doctors are trying to spread to Americans, including the estimated 40 million people who struggle with some type of sleep disorder each year.
Before Thomas Edison invented the light bulb in 1880, people slept an average of 10 hours a night. These days, Americans average 6.9 hours of sleep on weeknights and 7.5 hours a night on weekends, according to the National Sleep Foundation.


"The group of people getting optimal sleep is getting smaller and smaller," said Dr. Chris Drake, senior scientist at the Henry Ford Hospital Sleep Disorders and Research Center in Detroit. "When a person's sleep drops to six hours or less, that's when a lot of things become very problematic."

While experts recommend seven to eight hours of sleep each night, the amount needed for an individual can vary.But lack of sleep affects a person in one of two ways, Belenky said. First, sleeplessness influences the day-to-day performance of tasks.

"The performance effects are seen immediately," he said. "You short-change yourself of sleep, and you see the effects immediately. You can make a bad decision. You can miss something. Have a moment's inattention, and you're off the road."

The longer-term effects of sleep deprivation involve a person's health. Doctors have linked lack of sleep to weight gain, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart problems, depression and substance abuse.

"Hormones that process appetite begin to get disorganized," said Drake, who's also an assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral neuroscience at the Wayne State University School of Medicine. There's a decrease in the amount of leptin, an appetite-suppressing hormone, when a person gets too little sleep. At the same time, ghrelin -- a hormone that stimulates appetite -- increases with a lack of sleep.

Too little sleep also interferes with the body's ability to regulate glucose and can cause inflammation leading to heart problems and a rise in blood pressure. "There's a stress response to being in a sleep loss," Belenky said.


The types of people not getting enough sleep also break down into two groups. First, there are those who make the conscious choice to go without enough sleep.


"It's sort of part of the culture," Belenky said. "People pride themselves on getting little sleep. You'll hear people bragging, 'I only need six hours a night.' So there's a macho element here."


On the other hand, there are people who are suffering from sleep disorders. These disorders include:

Insomnia, an inability to go to sleep or stay asleep.
Sleep apnea, or breathing interruptions during sleep that cause people to wake up repeatedly.
Restless legs syndrome, a tingling or prickly sensation in the legs that causes a person to need to move them, interrupting sleep.

Someone suffering from any of these problems should visit their doctor or see a sleep specialist, Belenky said.


Sleep apnea, the most prevalent sleep disorder, can have particularly serious long-term effects if left untreated. "You're waking up out of sleep to breathe. You can't sleep and breathe at the same time," Drake said. "It's a risk factor for developing major cardiovascular health effects."

Some people who have trouble sleeping will resort to mild sedatives like Ambien and Lunesta.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently asked the makers of these sedative-hypnotic drugs to strengthen their warning labels. This action followed reports of dangerous allergic reactions, as well as a host of bizarre behavioral side effects that include sleep-driving, making phone calls, and preparing and eating food or having sex while asleep.

Drake and Belenky both consider sleeping pills to be fine for the short term if taken properly.

"Sleeping pills are a temporary solution," Belenky said. "If you're upset about something or have situational insomnia, or you're trying to sleep at the wrong time of day because you've traveled across time zones, they are effective."

But, both doctors noted the pills will do nothing to help a chronic sleep problem. "They don't address the pathology of their sleeplessness," Drake said.

The U.S. National Institutes of Health offers these tips for getting a good night's sleep:

Stick to a regular sleep schedule.
Avoid exercising closer than five or six hours before bedtime.
Avoid caffeine, nicotine and alcohol before bed.
Avoid large meals and beverages late at night.
Don't take naps after 3 p.m.
Relax before bed, taking time to unwind with a hot bath, a good book or soothing music.
If you're still awake after more than 20 minutes in bed, get up and do something relaxing until you feel sleepy. Anxiety over not being able to sleep can make it harder to fall asleep.
More information

A story about Shay - the disabled child

A good read!


What would you do?....you make the choice. Don't look for a punch line,
> there isn't one. Read it anyway. My question is: Would you have made the
> same choice?
>
> At a fundraising dinner for a school that serves learning-disabled
> children, the father of one of the students delivered a speech that would
> never be forgotten by all who attended. After extolling the school and its
> dedicated staff, he offered a question: 'When not interfered with by
> outside influences, everything nature does is done with perfection. Yet my
> son, Shay, cannot learn things as other children do. He cannot understand
> things as other children do. Where is the natural order of things in my
> son?'
> The audience was stilled by the query.
>
> The father continued. 'I believe, th at when a child like Shay, physically
> and mentally handicapped comes into the world, an opportunity to realize
> true human nature presents itself, and it comes in the way other people
> treat that child.'
>
> Then he told the following story:
>
> Shay and his father had walked past a park where some boys Shay knew were
> playing baseball. Shay asked, 'Do you think they'll let me play?' Shay's
> father knew that most of the boys would not want someone like Shay on
> their team, but the father also understood that if his son were allowed to
> play, it would give him a much-needed sense of belonging and some
> confidence to be accepted by others in spite of his handicaps.
>
> Shay's father approached one of the boys on the field and asked (not
> expecting much) if Shay could play. The boy looked around for guidance and
> said, 'We're losing by six runs and the game is in the eighth inning. I
> guess he can be on our team and we'll try to put him in to bat in the
> ninth inning.'
>
> S hay struggled over to the team's bench and, with a broad smile, put on a
> team shirt. His Father watched with a small tear in his eye and warmth in
> his heart. The boys saw the father's joy at his son being accepted. In the
> bottom of the eighth inning, Shay's team scored a few runs but was still
> behind by three. In the top of the ninth inning, Shay put on a glove and
> played in the right field. Even though no hits came his way, he was
> obviously ecstatic just to be in the game and on the field, grinning from
> ear to ear as his father waved to him from the stands. In the bottom of
> the ninth inning, Shay's team scored again. Now, with two outs and the
> bases loaded, the potential winning run was on base and Shay was scheduled
> to be next at bat.
>
> At this juncture, do they let Shay bat and give away their chance to win
> the game? Surprisingly, Shay was given the bat. Everyone knew that a hit
> was all but impossible because Shay didn't even know how to hold the bat
> properly, much less connect with the ball.
>
> However, as Shay stepped up to the plate, the pitcher, recognizing that
> the other team was putting winning aside for this moment in Shay's life,
> moved in a few steps to lob the ball in softly so Shay could at least make
> contact. The first pitch came and Shay swung clumsily and missed. The
> pitcher again took a few steps forward to toss the ball softly towards
> Shay. As the pitch came in, Shay swung at the ball and hit a slow ground
> ball right back to the pitcher.
>
> Th e game would now be over. The pit cher picked up the soft grounder and
> could have easily thrown the ball to the first baseman. Shay would have
> been out and that would have been the end of the game.
>
> Instead, the pitcher threw the ball right over the first baseman's head,
> out of reach of all team mates. Everyone from the stands and both teams
> started yelling, 'Shay, run to first! Run to first!' Never in his life had
> Shay ever run that far, but he made it to first base. He scampered down
> the baseline, wide-eyed and startled.
>
> Everyone yelled, 'Run to second, run to second!' Catching his breath, Shay
> awkwardly ran towards second, gleaming and struggling to make it to the
> base. By the time Shay rounded towards second base, the right fielder had
> the ball ... the smallest guy on their team who now had his first chance
> to be the hero for his team. He could have thrown the ball to the
> second-baseman for the tag, but he understood the pitcher's intentions so
> he, too, intent iona lly threw the ball high and far ov er the
> third-baseman's head. Shay ran toward third base deliriously as the
> runners ahead of him circled the bases toward home.
>
> All were screaming, 'Shay, Shay, Shay, all the Way Shay'
>
> Shay reached third base because the opposing shortstop ran to help him by
> turning him in the direction of third base, and shouted, 'Run to third!
> Shay, run to third!'
>
> As Shay rounded third, the boys from both teams, and the spectators, were
> on their feet screaming, 'Shay, run home! Run home!' Shay ran to home,
> stepped on the plate, and was cheered as the hero who hit the grand slam
> and won the game for his team.
>
> 'That day', said the father softly with tears now rolling down his face,
> 'the boys from both teams helped bring a piece of true love and humani ty
> in to this world'.
>
> Shay didn't make it to another summer. He died that winter, having never
> forgotten being the hero and making his father so happy, and coming home
> and seeing his Mother tearfully embrace her little hero of the day!
>
> AND NOW A LITTLE FOOTNOTE TO THIS STORY: We all send thousands of jokes
> through the e-mail without a second thought, but when it comes to sending
> messages about life choices, people hesitate. The crude, vulgar, and often
> obscene pass freely through cyberspace, but public discussion about
> decency is too often suppressed in our schools and workplaces.
>
> If you're thinking about forwarding this message, chances are that you're
> probably sorting out the people in your address book who aren't the
> 'appropriate' ones to receive this type of message. Well, the person who
> sent you this believes that we all can make a difference. We all have
> thousands of opportunities every single day to help realize the 'natural
> order of things.' So many s eeming ly trivial interactions between two
> people present us with a choice: Do we pass alo ng a little spark of love
> and humanity or do we pass up those opportunities and leave the world a
> little bit colder in the process?
>
> A wise man once said every society is judged by how it treats it's least
> fortunate amongst them.
>
> You now have two choices:
> 1. Delete
> 2. Forward
> May your day be a Shay Day
>
> Be a lamp, or a lifeboat, or a ladder. Help someone's soul heal. Walk
> out of your house like a shepherd. -Jalaluddin Rumi, poet and mystic
> (1207-1273)

Sunday, 8 June 2008

Jimmy Neutron : The Genius Cartoon Character


Yuhuu...Jimmy Neutron anyone ?? Click me.

Homeschool is the solution for the geniuses???

Just an opinion....click me

Genius: The Neurobiology of Giftedness

Time to explore........Click me

Thinking like a genius

"Even if you're not a genius, you can use the same strategies as Aristotle and Einstein to harness the power of your creative mind and better manage your future."

The following eight strategies encourage you to think productively,
rather than reproductively, in order to arrive at solutions to problems. "These strategies are common to the thinking styles of creative geniuses in science, art, and industry throughout history."

1. Look at problems in many different ways, and find new perspectives that no one else has taken (or no one else has publicized!)

Leonardo da Vinci believed that, to gain knowledge about the form of a problem, you begin by learning how to restructure it in many different ways. He felt that the first way he looked at a problem was too biased. Often, the problem itself is reconstructed and becomes a new one.

2. Visualize!

When Einstein thought through a problem, he always found it necessary to formulate his subject in as many different ways as possible, including using diagrams. He visualized solutions, and believed that words and numbers as such did not play a significant role in his thinking process.

3. Produce! A distinguishing characteristic of genius is productivity.

Thomas Edison held 1,093 patents. He guaranteed productivity by giving himself and his assistants idea quotas. In a study of 2,036 scientists throughout history, Dean Keith Simonton of the University of California at Davis found that the most respected scientists produced not only great works, but also many "bad" ones. They weren't afraid to fail, or to produce mediocre in order to arrive at excellence.

4. Make novel combinations. Combine, and recombine, ideas, images, and thoughts into different combinations no matter how incongruent or unusual.

The laws of heredity on which the modern science of genetics is based came from the Austrian monk Grego Mendel, who combined mathematics and biology to create a new science.

5. Form relationships; make connections between dissimilar subjects.

Da Vinci forced a relationship between the sound of a bell and a stone hitting water. This enabled him to make the connection that sound travels in waves. Samuel Morse invented relay stations for telegraphic signals when observing relay stations for horses.

6. Think in opposites.

Physicist Niels Bohr believed, that if you held opposites together, then you suspend your thought, and your mind moves to a new level. His ability to imagine light as both a particle and a wave led to his conception of the principle of complementarity. Suspending thought (logic) may allow your mind to create a new form.

7. Think metaphorically.

Aristotle considered metaphor a sign of genius, and believed that the individual who had the capacity to perceive resemblances between two separate areas of existence and link them together was a person of special gifts.

8. Prepare yourself for chance.

Whenever we attempt to do something and fail, we end up doing something else. That is the first principle of creative accident. Failure can be productive only if we do not focus on it as an unproductive result. Instead: analyze the process, its components, and how you can change them, to arrive at other results. Do not ask the question "Why have I failed?", but rather "What have I done?"

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